Language Generator 1—У кого есть, у кого нет (Who Has, Who Does Not Have)

In English we say “I have a pencil.” But Russians think about it a little differently and say “By me there is a pencil.” To build a Russian sentence about having or not having, take one word from each of the first three columns and then a word from the part of column four which corresponds to the word from column three.

ByWhom*Is/Is noWhat is or is notNotes

У

Beside

кого́

whom

есть

is there/there is

вопро́с

a question

With есть we use the nominative case for the thing in the fourth column

меня́

me


отве́т

an answer


нас

us


каранда́ш

a pencil


тебя́

thee


Би́блия

a/the Bible


вас

you


наде́жда

a/the hope


него́

him


ру́чка

a pen


неё

her


де́ньги

money


них

them

нет

is there no/there is no

вопро́са

question

With нет we use the genitive case for the thing in the fourth column.

Simplified rules:

Masculine: add -а

Feminine: change -а to -ы, -я to -и

Neuter: change -о to -а, -е to -я

Masculine plural: add -ов

Feminine and neuter plural: drop final vowel


Ива́на

John


отве́та

answer


А́нны

Anna


каранда́ша

pencil




Би́блии

Bible




наде́жды

hope




ру́чки

pen




де́нег

money

*If you add words to this column, be sure to put them in the genitive case. Refer to the grammar handouts named in the See Also box.

Hand holding pencil
У меня есть карандаш.

Examples

У кого́ есть Би́блия?

By whom is there a Bible?

(Who has a Bible?)

У него́ есть Би́блия.

By him there is a Bible.

(He has a Bible.)

У меня́ нет Би́блии.

By me there is no Bible.

(I do not have a Bible.)