Vocabulary 5A--Thirty Common Words

Some words are much more common than others. About 50% of the words uttered in conversation come from the 100 most used. By concentrating on the most used words you can improve your understanding of conversation much more quickly. Start by learning these 30 commonly-used words.

ConjunctionDefinition
иand
аand (but with slight contrast between the things joined)
ноbut
и́лиor
е́слиif (in the sense “if...then”, but not in the sense “whether”)
ParticleDefinition
неnot
даyes
нетno, there is no
PrepositionDefinition
уnext to or by as in “by the river”
вinside or into
изout of
PronounOther FormsDefinition
э́то
this (in the sense “This is...”)
яменя́, мне, мнойI
мынас, нам, на́миwe
тытебя́, тебе́, тобо́йyou (singular, informal, literally “thou”)
вывас, вам, ва́миyou (plural or formal)
онего́, ему́, имhe
онаеё, ейshe
оноего́, ему́, имit
ониих, им, и́миthey

In English most pronouns have two forms: I/me, he/him; etc. In Russian most have four forms. For now just learn to recognize them you see them. Later we will learn what each form means.

NounGenderDefinition
другmasculinefriend
кни́гаfemininebook
де́лоneuterbusiness, a matter to attend to
го́родmasculinecity
глазmasculineeye
сло́воneuterword
деньmasculineday
жизньfeminine (3rd declension) life
рука́femininehand and forearm
вода́femininewater

Gender is a grammatical concept. Russian nouns are divided into three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. For living things gender generally corresponds to sex, but for inanimate objects it is determined by the word's form.